Responsible Researcher

Dipl.-Soz. Gerd Bender
Gerd Bender
Researcher, European Affairs Commissioner of the Max Planck Institute for European Legal History

Phone: +49 (69) 789 78 - 136
Fax: +49 (69) 789 78 - 169

Publications (in German)

Related Research

Area of Expertise

The Europe of Dictatorships

Economic Control and Law


The abbreviated 20th century that began with the outbreak of World War I and ended with the dissolution of the Soviet Union and its power bloc at the start of the 1990s brought with it an abrupt break – far more strongly felt in Europe than was the case for example in North America – with the economic order and values of individualist liberalism as they were perceived in the 19th century on a theoretical level and anchored - albeit with certain statist “losses” that varied from nation to nation – in social reality. The inequalities of the liberal economic social model that came to the fore in the broad flow of debate as early as the 19th century gave rise to an extraordinarily diverse counter-movement. In the course of these revisions, Europe experienced several variants of economic control by dictatorship, the legal aspects of which have been described in a research project initiated by the Max Planck Institute for European Legal History.

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